Climate change and the WTO Intellectual Property Agreement (TRIPS) of the more adhesive conditions, which impose standards beyond TRIPS, were also discussed.  These free trade agreements contain conditions that limit the ability of governments to introduce competition for generic drug manufacturers. In particular, the United States has been criticized for promoting protection far beyond the standards prescribed by the TRIPS. The U.S. free trade agreements with Australia, Morocco and Bahrain have expanded patentability by making patents available for new uses of known products.  The TRIPS agreement authorizes the granting of compulsory licences at the discretion of a country. The terms of trips plus in the U.S. Free Trade Agreement with Australia, Jordan, Singapore and Vietnam have limited the application of mandatory licences to emergencies, remedies for cartels and abuse of dominance, and cases of non-commercial public use.  The TRIPS agreement introduced intellectual property rights into the multilateral trading system for the first time and remains the largest multilateral agreement on intellectual property to date. In 2001, developing countries, fearing that developed countries had insisted on too narrow a reading of the TRIPS trip, launched a series of discussions that culminated in the Doha Declaration. The Doha Declaration is a WTO DECLARATION that clarifies the scope of the TRIPS agreement, which states, for example, that TRIPS can and should be interpreted in light of the objective of “promoting access to medicines for all”. A broad set of comments has been developed on the potentially negative impact of various aspects of the TRIPS package on public health and development, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.8-10 The lack of basic public health care continues to be affected in many of these countries. The United Nations (UN) clearly recognizes this.
In 2001, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights declared that national and international IP regimes must comply with state human rights obligations11. In 2011, the UN General Assembly recognized the need to maintain flexibility to facilitate measures to improve access to health care, and UN member states agreed. that the intellectual property rights provisions in trade agreements should not undermine these flexibilities.12 trips has an effective enforcement mechanism. States can be disciplined by the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. A detailed overview of the ADPIC agreement THE TRIPS agreement … is the most comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property to date… The Australian government recently drafted a bill amending national patent legislation to create a legal environment for the export of medicines under the terms of protocol and AUSFTA. The 2012 Intellectual Property Amendment Bill was released in August 2012.48 This bill provides a useful case study on how rich nations can develop legislation consistent with the implementation decision and protocol within the additional limits imposed by a bilateral free trade agreement. The explanatory statement for the exhibition project lists an eight-step procedure created by the legislation for licensing (referred to in legislation as the “patented compulsory licence for pharmaceutical inventions” or a mandatory PPI licence).49 Table 1 provides an overview and commentary on the eight-step procedure.